HM Income & Customs (HMRC) is accountable for accumulating the UK’s worldwide commerce in items information, that are revealed as two Nationwide Statistics sequence – the ‘Abroad Commerce in Items Statistics (OTS)’ and the ‘Regional Commerce in Items Statistics (RTS)’. The RTS is revealed quarterly displaying commerce at abstract product and nation stage, cut up by UK areas and devolved administrations.
Please observe that commerce in items values are in present costs. Figures usually are not adjusted for inflation or world financial occasions, so please take warning when making comparisons with historic information.
The most recent statistics on Regional Commerce in Items had been launched by HMRC beneath preparations set out within the Code of Practice for Statistics. This launch contains the primary provisional estimates of commerce in items for the second quarter of 2023, and revisions for beforehand revealed regional information regarding 2022 and the primary quarter of 2023.
Aggregated tables are produced to permit time sequence evaluation:
- Desk 1 Worth (£ hundreds of thousands) of Exports (EU / Non-EU) by Area
- Desk 2 Worth (£ hundreds of thousands) of Imports (EU / Non-EU) by Area
- Desk 3 Depend of Exporters (EU / Non-EU) by Area for each Complete Quantity methodology and Proportion methodology
- Desk 4 Depend of Importers (EU / Non-EU) by Area for each Complete Quantity methodology and Proportion methodology
- Desk 5 Worth (£ hundreds of thousands) of Commerce by SITC Part and Nation Group (separate tables for every area)
These tables are offered in a supporting statistical data set to this launch.
Information supply adjustments
From 31 December 2020, the free motion of individuals and items and companies between the UK and the European Union (EU) ended. This meant the way in which HMRC collected commerce in items statistics was revised.
UK to EU exports
As much as 31 December 2020, UK to EU export statistics had been collected by way of the Intrastat statistical survey, which required merchants to declare the worth and quantity of commodities exported to EU Member States throughout the related month of bodily items motion.
For items shifting from 1 January 2021, GB to EU export statistics are compiled straight from customs export declarations made based on the necessities of the Taxation (Cross Border Commerce) Act. The customs declaration necessities are extra complicated than the one month-to-month aggregated Intrastat return and may end up in variations between dates of declaration and precise motion of the products in another country.
The OTS compilation methodology depends upon the acceptance date of the customs export declaration for its inclusion throughout the related month of account, moderately than the declared bodily motion date used from the Intrastat survey.
Intrastat survey returns proceed to be collected for items exported from Northern Eire to the EU, beneath the phrases of the Northern Ireland Protocol.
Each the GB to EU customs export declaration information and Northern Eire Intrastat export (dispatch) information are included into the general UK to EU export dataset. Because of the adjustments and variations outlined, there’s a break within the time sequence for revealed UK to EU export statistics from January 2021. Customers are suggested to notice this variation when making comparisons to earlier quarters/years.
UK imports from EU
For UK imports from the EU, the Intrastat survey continued to function in 2021 for all UK (GB and NI) imports (arrivals) from the EU, to mitigate the consequences of staged customs controls, and to adjust to the Northern Eire Protocol.
Nevertheless, from 1 January 2022, Intrastat solely utilized for actions of products between Northern Eire and the EU. Statistics on actions into GB from the EU have been compiled straight from customs import declarations.
Subsequently, from January 2022, the UK’s items imports from EU dataset incorporates two information sources: GB’s items imports from EU information that’s collected by way of customs declarations and NI’s items imports from EU information, collected by way of Intrastat declarations.
As introduced within the Borders Management Assertion (UIN HLWS473) on 15 December 2021, the Authorities prolonged the present preparations for shifting items from the island of Eire to Nice Britain for so long as discussions on the Protocol are ongoing.
These momentary preparations allow Irish merchants to proceed relying on staged customs controls for the foreseeable future. Whereas these measures are in place, import statistics for commerce between GB and Eire are reported as declared and could not replicate the interval wherein the products have been traded.
Because of the adjustments and variations outlined, there was a break within the time sequence for revealed EU to UK import statistics from January 2022.
Please observe that customs import declarations of non-controlled items imported into GB from Eire might be deferred for as much as 175 days. This will have an effect on the accuracy of commerce information for GB imports from Eire and related aggregations.
Extra info on the latest adjustments to commerce in items statistics might be discovered on the UK Trade Info website.
Statistical worth threshold in customs declarations
Customs declarations with commodity line values that fall beneath the statistical worth threshold of £873 (in worth) and 1,000kg (in web mass) are aggregated into ‘low worth aggregates’. We don’t obtain enterprise, product, or associate nation info on these actions. In consequence, we can not assign this commerce to a UK area, due to this fact the worth is assigned to the Unallocated-unknown area. This is applicable to items exports from GB to EU international locations from 2021, and imports to GB from EU international locations from 2022. That is per the RTS strategies used for commerce with non-EU international locations, that are additionally sourced from customs declarations. Because of this variation, a worth enhance will probably be obvious for Unallocated-Unknown for EU flows from the dates specified.
Re-introduction of EU enterprise counts
As a result of latest adjustments to information sources outlined, in addition to adjustments to the VAT information supply, a brand new methodology for EU enterprise counts was launched within the 2022 Q1 publication, which resulted in a break in sequence from earlier RTS EU enterprise counts. EU and complete enterprise counts from the 2021 information interval onwards are due to this fact not be comparable with RTS enterprise counts revealed previous to 2021.
- Previous to 2021, EU enterprise counts had been compiled from Intrastat declarations, whereas companies buying and selling under the Intrastat threshold had been captured by VAT information. Companies buying and selling under the Intrastat threshold made up a small share of the entire commerce worth however accounted for a lot of the companies buying and selling.
From January 2021, adjustments had been made to the VAT information which implies that solely actions between Northern Eire and EU international locations are precisely recorded. Additional, following EU Exit, commerce between GB and EU international locations is now reported by customs declarations moderately than Intrastat. Customs declarations due to this fact grew to become the principle information supply for GB exports to EU international locations from January 2021, and GB imports from EU international locations from January 2022.
- Because of the adjustments outlined, a brand new time sequence for EU enterprise counts begins from the info interval of 2021 Q1. EU enterprise counts at the moment are compiled on this approach:
- From 2021 onwards:
- GB exports to EU international locations by way of customs export declarations.
- NI exports to EU international locations by way of Intrastat (above threshold) and VAT information (under threshold).
- From 2021 onwards:
- For 2021:
- UK imports from EU international locations had been collected by way of Intrastat.
- NI imports from EU international locations for these under the Intrastat threshold collected by way of VAT information.
- Further uncooked customs import declaration information to higher seize the GB imports from EU international locations. All through 2021, companies may defer their EU imports declarations for as much as 175 days, this may increasingly influence information high quality.
- For 2022:
- GB imports from EU international locations by way of customs import declarations.
- NI imports from EU international locations by way of Intrastat (above threshold) and VAT information (under threshold).
- For 2021:
- EU exporters
Abroad Commerce in Items Statistics
Information is taken primarily from customs techniques (for UK imports from and exports to non-EU commerce and GB imports from and exports to EU international locations) and the Intrastat survey (for Northern Eire imports from and exports to EU international locations). HMRC doesn’t obtain info in respect of products that transfer wholly throughout the UK, nor in intangibles and companies equivalent to banking or tourism.
The Abroad Commerce in Items Statistics (OTS) had been revealed on a Particular Commerce foundation from Might 2016 account onwards. This transformation has been mirrored within the RTS from 2016 Q2 launch onwards. All information on this launch has been compiled on a Particular Commerce foundation to permit comparisons throughout intervals to be made. Extra info on common and particular commerce techniques might be discovered within the OTS and RTS methodologies.
Updates to 2023 commerce figures as revealed within the July OTS launched on 13 September 2023 haven’t been utilized to this 2023 Q2 RTS launch because of manufacturing lead in instances.
Commerce in non-monetary gold (NMG) is now included in OTS information, nevertheless this commerce will proceed to be excluded from RTS information. It is because nearly all of NMG commerce can be assigned to the London area and this could distort the RTS figures. The next reconciliation desk (Desk A) reveals the variations at complete commerce stage between OTS and RTS by quantifying the weather of OTS which are excluded from RTS.
Desk A: RTS/OTS Reconciliation Desk Quarter 2, 2023 (£ hundreds of thousands)
|OTS complete worth
|RTS complete worth
|Allotted to a area
|Late response estimates
|RTS complete plus exclusions
- There could also be rounding variations between the entire proven and the sum of its elements.
- Late Response estimates are for commerce between Northern Eire and EU international locations. They’re excluded from RTS commerce.
- Non-Financial Gold is excluded from RTS commerce
- 2023 information is provisional and topic to replace.
Supply: Regional Commerce in Items Statistics and Abroad Commerce in Items Statistics, HM Income & Customs
Stability of Funds
The Stability of Funds (BoP) figures revealed by the Workplace for Nationwide Statistics (ONS) are calculated on a special foundation to the OTS. Subsequently, changes are made when producing BoP which implies that the RTS and BoP usually are not comparable. The ONS web site offers an summary of BoP, and is the place you could find their detailed month-to-month UK Commerce Releases.
Following a casual public session on Regional Commerce in Items Statistics (RTS), releases from the 2016 Q3 launch incorporates adjustments to the methodology and presentation that resulted from this session. The primary adjustments had been:
- Allocating a enterprise’ commerce to a area based mostly on their proportion of staff in that area moderately than the place the placement of the Head Workplace of the enterprise is.
- Dividing commerce that can’t be allotted to a area into ‘Recognized’ and ‘Unknown’.
- For particular power items utilizing information acquired by HMRC direct from interconnector and rig operators moderately than the enterprise doing the commerce.
- The variety of companies now contains all VAT registered merchants moderately than simply those that are required to make full declarations to HMRC for his or her EU commerce. Please see the re-introduction of EU enterprise counts part for adjustments to enterprise counts from Q1 2022 launch onwards.
RTS information is compiled by merging commerce information collected by HMRC with employment information from the Interdepartmental Enterprise Register (IDBR). A enterprise’ commerce is allotted to a area based mostly on the proportion of its staff employed in that area. The place a dealer isn’t matched with the IDBR, its commerce is matched with ONS postcode information to acquire the area wherein the Head Workplace of the VAT registered enterprise (importer or exporter) relies.
Not all commerce might be assigned to one of many 9 English Areas, Wales, Scotland and Northern Eire. The place acceptable, that is referred to within the tables because the ‘Unallocated Commerce’. Unallocated Commerce is cut up into:
- ‘Unallocated – Recognized’: the place we’ve nearly full particulars of the commerce, however it isn’t acceptable to allocate it to a area. This covers:
- Commerce going into or out of the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man;
- Commerce carried out by abroad based mostly merchants who’ve a VAT presence within the UK;
- Commerce carried out by the UK Authorities; and
- Parcel publish commerce that’s handled centrally (commerce collected by way of customs declarations).
- ‘Unallocated – Unknown’: This contains:
- Commerce the place enterprise particulars submitted are invalid;
- Un-registered companies (commerce collected by way of customs declarations);
- Personal People (commerce collected by way of customs declarations); and
- Low Worth Commerce (commerce collected by way of customs declarations).
For particular power items solely, commerce is allotted to the area the place the products enter or depart the UK moderately than the placement / employment of the enterprise doing the commerce. It is because HMRC receives particulars of the commerce in these items straight from grid operators moderately than the enterprise. The products involved are Electrical power, Pure Fuel in a gaseous state and Crude Oil exported straight from offshore oil rigs. Crude Oil imported to the UK and exported from terminals continues to be allotted to the area of the enterprise.
The enterprise depend is derived from commerce declarations and is a depend of companies importing and exporting. Please see the re-introduction of EU enterprise counts part for adjustments to EU enterprise counts from the Q1 2022 publication onwards.
The place companies have branches in a number of areas, there are two methods of deriving the depend:
- Complete Quantity Methodology: A enterprise will probably be counted as one in each area they’ve staff. This represents the precise depend of companies in any area. Nevertheless, it should imply the sum of the dealer depend for every area will probably be higher than that for the UK.
- Proportion Methodology: A enterprise will probably be counted as a fraction in every area they commerce based mostly on the proportion of their staff in every area. A person enterprise counts as one enterprise within the UK. The sum of companies (complete and fractions) offers the entire enterprise depend for a area.
We present outcomes from each strategies within the desk 3 of the accompanying information tables
RTS information is categorised by associate nation and Standard International Trade Classification, Rev.4. (SITC) at division stage (2-digit). The SITC is a comparatively broad classification of products and isn’t as detailed because the commodity classification accessible within the OTS. On this launch RTS information is analysed at associate nation and SITC part (1-digit) stage, with references to SITC divisions the place acceptable.
Extra info might be discovered within the RTS methodology document.
Northern Eire Statistics and Analysis Company (NISRA) publish the Northern Eire Financial Commerce Statistics (NIETS). NIETS information is gathered by the NI Annual Enterprise Inquiry (ABI). Because of methodological variations, the NIETS and the RTS usually are not straight comparable.
On 6 April 2023, HMRC launched the Customs Importer and Exporter Population statistics. It stories on the variety of importers and exporters within the calendar yr 2022, who had been named on a customs declaration to maneuver items between Nice Britain (GB) and the European Union (EU), or United Kingdom (UK) and non-EU international locations. These counts will differ to RTS enterprise counts. There are a number of variations between the 2 publications, specifically that RTS contains information from Intrastat and VAT (for NI solely) and excludes counts of merchants that constantly fall beneath the commodity line threshold outlined.
The ONS produces the Worldwide commerce in UK nations, areas and cities experimental statistics which estimates the worth of exports and imports of products and companies for 2019 for Worldwide Territory Ranges 1, 2 and three, and 16 metropolis areas. The ONS launch is produced on a BoP foundation whereas RTS are compiled on an Worldwide Merchandise Commerce Statistics (IMTS) foundation. There are quite a few totally different methodologies that contribute to the compilation of every set of statistics, however the principle one is that RTS are compiled based mostly on items bodily coming into or leaving the UK, whereas the ONS subnational commerce are produced on a change of financial possession foundation.
The UK Statistics Authority has designated these statistics as Nationwide Statistics, in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 and signifying compliance with the Code of Follow for Official Statistics. Designation might be broadly interpreted to imply that the statistics:
- meet recognized consumer wants;
- are properly defined and readily accessible;
- are produced based on sound strategies, and
- are managed impartially and objectively within the public curiosity.
As soon as statistics have been designated as Nationwide Statistics it’s a statutory requirement that the Code of Follow shall proceed to be noticed.
The Regional Commerce in Items figures bear common high quality assurance opinions to make sure they meet buyer wants. These opinions are revealed as a Authorities Statistical Service High quality report.
There’s a restricted service to offer RTS outputs straight from HMRC Commerce Statistics the place the info can’t be obtained from different sources. This service is topic to HMRC normal disclosure guidelines utilized to beforehand un-published information.
Now that the UK has left the EU, it’s important that our statistics proceed to be of top of the range and are internationally comparable. All releases proceed to be produced in accordance with the UK Statistics Authority’s Code of Follow for Statistics in addition to internationally agreed statistical steering and requirements.